Holotype for Quercus submollis Rydb. Catalog Number: US 213388 Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined Preparation: Pressed specimen Collector(s): T. E. Wilcox Year Collected: 1894 Locality: Near Fort Huachuca., Arizona, United States, North America
Holotype: Rydberg, P. A. 1901. Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 2: 202.
Gambel oak has not been used extensively for environmental rehabilitation of disturbed sites. The majority of research has been centered toward control or eradication. However, Gambel oak has a moderate value for long-term revegetation. The extensive root system helps provide soil stability and reduce erosion .
Propagation of Gambel oak using stem cuttings has shown little success [92,179]. Sopp  recommends stratification of Gambel oak seeds for 2 weeks at 35.6 degrees Fahrenheit (2 o C) to obtain maximum germination results. Sopp also recommends disinfecting acorns to prevent contamination by pathogens.
The upper and lower limits of Gambel oak's range are established by the Arizona monsoons that generates a gradient of increasing cold stress in winter and spring and a summer drought stress with increasing latitude . Gambel oak prefers a mean annual temperature of 44.6 to 50 degrees Fahrenheit (7-10 oC) with winter temperatures below negative 0.4 degrees Fahrenheit (-18 oC) . Gambel oak does not occur in areas where winter precipitation falls below 10 inches (250 mm) or where subfreezing temperatures persist for long periods of time . Annual mean precipitation measured over 14 years (1934 to 1948) at 7,655 feet (2,333 m) within Gambel oak habitats of the mountain brush zone was 20.10 inches (510 mm) . Throughout its distribution Gambel oak occurs between 3,250 and 10,200 feet (990-3,110 m) . Elevation limits are the widest at the southern extent, narrowing northward . A preference for south slopes was observed between 8,200 and 8,700 feet (2,500-2,650 m) in southwestern New Mexico . At 7,500 to 8,000 feet (2,286-2,438 m) in Mount Livermore, Texas, Gambel oak occurs on ledges and bordering talus slopes .
Several environmental parameters were evaluated in Gambel oak stands, comparing understory and open areas between oaks in the lower Unita mountains, Utah. Elevation is 7,218 feet (2,200 m); slope is 10% with an 185o exposure. Mean annual precipitation is 17.7 inches (450 mm), 60% of which is received in winter . Litter was deeper, shrubs had greater cover, and light was less intense under Gambel oak:
Litter depth (cm)
Perennial forbs (%)
Light intensity1 (foot candles)
1 Light intensity was measured in July from 12 to 2 pm.
Elevational ranges of Gambel oak are:
southwestern Colorado: 4,000 to 8,500 feet (1200-2550 m)  Utah: 5,500 to 7,500 feet (1700-2300 m) [26,40]
Gambel oak may contribute up to 50% of diet without cattle showing any ill effects. Poisoning occurs when more than 50% is consumed, with death often resulting when more than 75% of cattle's diet is Gambel oak . Freezing enhances toxic properties of Gambel oak browse; young foliage turned black by freezing is extremely toxic .
The palatability of Gambel oak to livestock and wildlife species in several western states has been rated as follows  :
In the southern extent of its distribution, Gambel oak occupies a minor role as an associate within ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and mixed-conifer habitats. Moving north, long-lived Gambel oak clones form dominant to monotypic overstories .
Harper and others  constructed a list of common plant associates in a 1985 literature review. The following table lists common plant associates of Gambel oak.
SHRUBS and TREES
1A = central Utah, B = Colorado, C = southern Utah, D = Arizona, E = New Mexico
Kunzler and others  evaluated 23 Gambel oak brush stands in central and northern Utah to compare presence or absence of major plant associates. Gambel oak stands on average supported 25 plant species; cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and stickywilly (Galium aparine) were the 2 most abundant species. The most abundant shrub associate was mountain snowberry (Symphoricarpos oreophilus).
Gambel oak is a typical riparian species in New Mexico, occurring from 6,580 to 8,080 feet (2,006 - 2,463 m) within the Black and Sacramento mountain ranges .
Gambel oak is a dominant species in the central Utah mountain brush zone at 6,500 to 7,800 feet (1,981-2,377 m) on southern exposures. On northern exposures Gambel oak either shares dominance with bigtooth maple (Acer grandidentatum) or is completely replaced by bigtooth maple . Bigtooth maple is a common Gambel oak associate at the southern end of the Wasatch Mountains. On the west flank of the southern and middle Wasatch range, Gambel oak and bigtooth maple form a dense woodland .
In Arizona Gambel oak is represented as shrub thickets over the majority of its range. It occurs as a tree throughout the ponderosa pine habitat type. The habit of Gambel oak within ponderosa pine-Gambel oak habitat types corresponds to the overall density of ponderosa pine. In dense ponderosa pine stands, Gambel oak is sparse and short; stems are taller and clumped in open stands . At an elevation range of 8,000 to 8,600 feet (2,440-2,620 m) in Arizona, Gambel oak is subdominant to ponderosa pine with southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) . On heavier-textured soils in Colorado, serviceberry (Amelanchier spp.) is an important associate .
Published classifications listing Gambel oak as an indicator or dominant are listed below:
A classification of forest habitat types of the northern portion of the Cibola National Forest, New Mexico 
A classification of forest habitat types of the Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico